We have mentioned before that for many years, experts have classified suitable tea ecological zones in Yunnan according to the requirements of Yunnan tea plants for ecological environment and the main conditions for cultivating large-leaved species in Yunnan, but this is only a basis for one aspect, and can not be used as the main basis for judging whether a region can develop tea production.
Yunnan Teas District
According to Yunnan's geographical location, ecological environment, natural conditions of tea plant growth, tea production status and county-level administrative region as a unit, Yunnan is summarized as the main four tea districts: West Yunnan Tea District, South Yunnan Tea District, Central Yunnan Tea District and Northeast Yunnan Tea District-Chinese Tea Area
Tea planting and tea making in Western Yunnan and southern Yunnan have a long history, and the water, humidity and heat conditions are superior. They have the ecological environment and germplasm resources to build a world-class tea district. They are one of the most suitable areas for tea development in China.
According to the detailed explanation in Yuncha Dadian, the tea districts in Western Yunnan include 19 counties in Lincang, Baoshan and Dehong prefectures and cities.
The area is the main tea-producing area in Yunnan, with favorable natural conditions, with an average annual temperature of 14.7 to 19.5 degrees Celsius. There are few frost days in the whole year. The annual rainfall in Tengchong and Longling is between 1415 mm and 2100 mm, while that in other areas is between 1100 and 1330 mm. The soil is mainly mountainous red soil. In some areas, latosol red soil and yellow soil are around PH5.0-5.5. Tea garden area accounts for 50% of the province, and the output accounts for 60% of the province. There are 4 tea series and 10 kinds of tea, including Dahu tea, Thick Axis tea, Wuzhu tea, Dali tea, Yunnan-Burma tea, Mengla tea, Dehong tea, Pseudocalyx tea and Puer tea.
Western Yunnan Tea District is the main concentrated producing area of Yunnan Tea, and also the main producing area of Yunnan Red. The rest of Yunnan Green Tea and Puer Tea are mainly produced in Fengqing, Yunxian, Lincang, Shuangjiang, Yongde, Changning, Longling, Tengchong, Luxi and other counties. Yunnan Red Tea accounts for 75% of the total output of Yunnan Province. Fengqing Black Tea has a high reputation at home and abroad.
South Yunnan Tea District, including Puer City, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Honghe Prefecture, Wenshan Prefecture and other four states, cities, 24 counties. The annual average temperature ranges from 16.4 to 21.7 degrees Celsius. There are fewer frost days and abundant rainfall in the whole year. Most counties have annual rainfall of about 1200 millimeters, and the annual rainfall is 80%, concentrated in May-October. Tea planting soils are latosol red soil, red soil, etc. There are 4 tea lines, 22 tea species and 2 varieties. Tea plantation area accounts for 36% of the province, and output accounts for 28% of the province. Xishuangbanna is the origin of tea in the world and the origin of Yunnan red and Puer tea. Most counties in the southwest of Yunnan Tea District are the oldest tea areas in Yunnan. Tea planting has a long history. There are large areas of ancient tea gardens in Menghai, Lancang, Jinggu and other places, usually 10-20 meters high.
The tea planting area in central Yunnan, including Kunming, Dali, Chuxiong and Yuxi, has 20 counties. The annual average temperature varies greatly and the annual rainfall distribution is unbalanced. Most of the tea planting soils are mountain red soils and a few yellow soils. PH5.0-5.6 is a mixed transitional area of large, medium and small species. The area of tea plantations in this area accounts for 8% of the province, and the output accounts for 5% of the province. It mainly produces all kinds of Yunnan and Yunnan green.
There are 12 counties producing tea in northeastern Yunnan, including Zhaotong and Qujing. The average annual temperature ranges from 13.0 to 17.8 degrees Celsius, with a longer frost period. Annual rainfall ranges from 800 mm to 1100 mm, and annual relative humidity ranges from 70% to 80%. Tea-planting soils are red soils and a small part of yellow soils in mountainous areas, which are medium and small-leaved planting areas. There are three tea lines and five kinds of tea in this area. The area of tea garden accounts for 4% of the whole province, and the output accounts for 5% of the whole province. The main production of green tea is green tea.
In addition, there are northwest Yunnan, including Lijiang, Nujiang and Shangri-La. Tea plantations account for 0.16% of the province's total area and 0.12% of the total output. The area is small and the output is small. There are one tea family and two tea species in this area. (Excerpt from Yuncha Dadian)
According to the comprehensive factors, Yunnan tea districts are divided into five tea districts. The development of tea in each region is different. Specifically, it is necessary to adapt to local conditions and seek development. For more details on the division of the five tea districts in Yunnan, please refer to the "Yuncha Dadian" for an understanding.